Friday, July 1, 2016

Trying Again: More Anarchists at the Old Bailey, 1894

Royal Offences > seditious libel, 23rd July 1894.

Fritz Brall's trial ending in a result for the anarchists did not bring an end to police attempts to put some of them behind bars in the aftermath of the Greenwich explosion. On their part, some anarchists were not prepared to disappear or adopt the sort of low profile that might have made it more difficult to pin anything on them. Two activists, Cantwell and Quin(n), were arrested one month after Brall and just before he was brought to trial. As described by John Quail, they had gone to Tower Bridge the day before its ceremonial opening to address the workers who had built it and make the point that they had been exploited and denied credit for their labour, and protest (as you do) against royals getting in on the act. The ensuing disorder, plausibly argued to have been fomented by the Special Branch and its agents, not only allowed them to be charged (with a 'royal' twist to the alleged offence to make the indictment more intimidating) but led to to the month-long occupation by police of the Commonweal offices - both men had been involved with this publication. (Undeterred, both resumed their anarchist involvement after their release.)

The full trial report (edited below) does not add much of substance to the account John Quail gives on pp.180-183 of The Slow-Burning Fuse, (1978). It does, however, reinforce several points he makes about police, in particular Special Branch, persecution of anarchists in London, and supplies a lot of interesting detail about the interactions and confrontations that went on at this time. References include:- 

p.181 Arrest July 1; occupation of Commonweal offices by police until July 30.

p.196, 204-5 Cantwell on group producing Commonweal after release from prison. Accused of sponging, exploiting comrades etc. (with Ernest Young). Evicted 2 Italians at gunpoint. "Difficult" p.206; "finally left Freedom - at least temporarily" Nov. 1897; as printer 207. Criticised e.g. for "contrariness" p.222.

p.203 C.(Carl) T.Quinn described the Anarchist movement as "very dull and sluggish" in letter to Liberty, Jan. 1896. Secretary of Alarm Group p.206; acrimonious circumstances. Associated Anarchists.

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THOMAS CANTWELL, CHARLES THOMAS QUIN, Royal Offences > seditious libel, 23rd July 1894.

Reference Number: t18940723-632
Offence: Royal Offences > seditious libel
Verdict: Guilty > no_subcategory
Punishment: Imprisonment > hard labour

632. THOMAS CANTWELL (28), and CHARLES THOMAS QUIN (24), were indicted for unlawfully soliciting, encouraging and persuading Henry Braden and others to murder members of the Royal Family and others. Other Counts, for unlawfully making seditious and inflammatory speeches, and for publishing a seditious libel.

JOSEPH WELCH . I am a labourer—on 29th June, about half-past one, I was near the tea warehouse on Tower Hill—I saw the two prisoners there, with two other men—Cantwell had a bill in his pocket; he took it out and showed it to the other three who were with him: "Tower Bridge. Fellow Workers. You have expended life, energy, and skill in building this bridge. Now come the Royal vermin and rascally politicians with pomp and splendour to claim all the credit. You are condemned to the workhouse and the paupers' grave to glorify these lazy swine, who live upon your labour. I heard men saying, Leave tears and praying, The sharp knife heedeth not the sheep. Are we not stronger than the rich and wronger, when day breaks over dreams and sleep"—then one of them took some bills out of his pocket, and they were distributed between them to others—they were something like this (Produced), (Headed, "Why Vaillant threw the bomb")—Quin then got on the rampart, opened the paper, and held the pamphlet in his hand—I did not hear what was said.
Cross-examined. I do not know who the other two men were—I know them by sight, and I should know them again—I did not read the heading of the tract; I do not know whether it was anything like these (Produced)—no one told me to come and give evidence—a constable came and asked me if I was on Tower Hill that day.

FREDERICK CAVE . I am a commercial clerk out of employment, living at 77, Whitechapel Road—on Friday, 29th June, I went to Tower Hill to see the decorations on the Tower Bridge, which was to be opened the next day—as I was passing in front of a tea warehouse I saw Cantwell get on a wall—he unrolled a poster of this colour (yellow)—I could read all of it, except the four lines of poetry at the bottom—it was pasted on a piece of brown paper—at first, when he began to speak, I was a little way off—after a little time I drew nearer to him—he was then making a reference to the position of capital and labour, referring to the unemployed, exhorting them to join his party, as they were being deceived by both political parties—he said, "I am very ill, hardly able to be here to-day"—he was asked by one of the crowd, "Are you an Anarchist?"—he said, "Yes, I am; I am proud of it"—further on in his speech, referring to the Prince of Wales and the Royal Family, he used these words, "As for the Prince of Wales and the Royal vermin, I would serve them as other vermin are," and referring to the next day's ceremony, the opening of the Tower Bridge, he said, "As for the blackguard crew who will be on the Tower Bridge to-morrow, they are only fit for bombs"—he then asked where were the widows and orphans of those men who had lost their lives in the building of the Tower Bridge—for anything they knew they would be starving, while Royalty would be feeding—further on he said, "I have fought for the cause; I have suffered for the cause, and I am willing to die for the cause; we shall be heard of again and again "in reference to the next day, and he was willing to lead any who chose to follow him—referring to the assassination of President Carnot he justified it, as having been an act committed in the best interest of the working classes, and asserting that that view was held by Lord Salisbury and Lord Rosebery, and he proceeded to quote from what he said was in a recent speech of Lord Rosebery's to that effect—as soon as the crowd found what were the sentiments and the object of Cantwell they became extremely hostile, and there was a great deal of commotion—it was very difficult therefore to hear all that he said, but I am sure I heard what I have repeated—at last, when he got to the end, there were cries of "Lynch him!"—that was after Quin had spoken—Cantwell got down from the parapet, and handed the placard to Quin, who mounted the parapet, and opened his speech with these words, "Comrades and fellow workers, I fully endorse the able speech which my comrade has placed before you"—further on he was greatly interrupted; the crowd told him they had heard enough; they did not want to hear him—further on, in the course of his speech, referring to the assassination of President Carnot, he said, "Comrades, we have been heard of in France, and we shall be heard of again to-morrow"—he did not say what he was, but he said he fully endorsed the sentiments of his comrade—he held up the Anarchists as being the only sound party, and the friends of the working men—I recollect nothing further in his speech—it was a scene of continual excitement—he was pulled down from the parapet; the crowd raised the cry of "Lynch him! Lynch him! Lynch them!" the speakers—during the course of the proceedings, references to the Anarchist party were met by the crowd with cries of," Shoot them! Shoot them!" and when Cantwell was referring to the members of the Royal Family in the vile language he used the crowd called for cheers for the Queen and the Royal Family, and they were given—Quin was hustled down from the wall, and I saw him and Cantwell run away, but they were so completely hustled by the crowd that I lost sight of them when they turned the corner of the tea warehouse—I lost sight of Cantwell for the time being, but I saw him afterwards—I followed him into Gracechurch Street, and there saw him claiming the protection of the police—Quin entirely disappeared from my sight—Cantwell appeared very haggard, and appealed to the police to save him from the crowd—it was an excited crowd, which blocked the whole traffic—that was the last I saw of Cantwell.

Cross-examined. Q. Where do you live?—A. What has that to do with the case? have been shadowed already, and I shall remove from where I am now living; the address I have given is where I slept last night; I am not employed as a commercial clerk now; I was last so employed in the middle of last September; since then I have had a serious illness; I refuse to answer where I was last employed; I left it from illness—when I first saw Cantwell mount the parapet I was standing on the pavement, opposite Trinity Square—when he was speaking I stood some thirty or forty yards from the parapet—it was about half-past one; I know the time, because I had not long before seen the clock of the Steam Navigation Company—I am not acquainted with Braden—I have never before assisted the police in a case—I don't know who it was that asked Cantwell, "Are you an Anarchist?"—it was a stranger to me—I did not see any pamphlets distributed—Cantwell said that the assassination of President Carnot was fully justified—those were the words—those were the words I used at Guildhall, and he said, "As having been done in the highest interests of the working classes"—I occasionally report for the newspapers; not for any newspaper in particular, any that will take my report—I reported these proceedings for newspapers: the St. James's Gazette, the Evening News and Post—I have not a copy of my report for the Evening News—this (produced) is a copy (The Witness read it)—I did not see who pulled Quin down from the parapet—he did not step down; he had not the chance—there was nothing about "bombs" in the report for the Evening News—if I had said anything about bombs my report would not have been received—I don't know that they do not care for sensational reports; they might think they wanted verification—I did not hear anyone but Quin use the word "bombs"—I took notes of the words he used; the notes are destroyed; you always destroy them when you make out the report, unless you think they might be called for afterwards, and I never had the slightest idea that they would have been—I do not know this report in the Echo of the same day; it is not mine—I stood thirty or forty yards away from the speaker, as near as I can guess; I have not measured—I heard what was said—at intervals, of course, there was a great deal of disturbance—in my report in the St. James's Gazette, there are the words, "blackguard vermin"—I consider that vulgarity; the word "bombs" is a criminal idea.

RICHARD WINSLEY (402 H). On Friday, 29th June, I was on duty on Tower Hill—at 1.30 my attention was directed to Cantwell addressing a meeting—he had in his hand a placard on a piece of brown paper—this is a copy of it—I heard portions of what he said—there were about fifty people there when I first saw him—I heard him say that they intended to make war against the bloodsuckers, and there were men, as they knew, willing to die for the cause, and it mattered not to him how much he was abused, at the proper time he was willing to do the same—I heard a shout in the crowd of "Carnot"—I cannot remember the exact words he used, but he said in effect there were plenty in England who ought to be served the same—he was referring to capitalists and members of the Stock Exchange; and further on, speaking of President Carnot, he said he considered it was a necessity for the interests of the workmen that those persons should be removed—he was there at half-past one, and he got off the parapet at three minutes to two—then Quin got up, and the placard was handed to him, and he commenced to address the meeting—he said, "Comrades," and then there was a great deal of holloaing, and further on in his speech he said, "I tell you we were heard of in France, and we will be heard of again to-morrow, and again and again"—there were cries of, "Pull him off" and "Lynch him"—he then got down—before he got down he saw me writing this down; I wrote it down at the time, and he said, "You think that the police are here for your protection, but you never made a greater mistake in your life; they are kept up by the capitalists to keep you down"—Cantwell, while addressing the crowd, had a small pamphlet in his hand besides the yellow placard—Quin went into a church that was under repair close by; the door was open, and he went in—the crowd was very hostile to him; I think he was glad to get in there—Cantwell hurried off along Great Tower Street—while the speaking was going on I sent for assistance, because the crowd were so hostile—I was afraid the men might get lynched, or something of that kind—the crowd was then about 300.

Cross-examined. I did not make a note of the whole of Cantwell's speech—I made my note about an hour after it occurred, at the station—I can produce it—this is it—I made it for the Inspector—I was not assisted by anyone in making it—other officers had not spoken to me about what had occurred; I was relieved from duty, and had gone home, and another officer was sent after me to make out the report, and I came back to the station and did it—I have sworn to something that is not in this note—I was not told to repeat everything I heard; it is not usual in reports—I saw Cantwell take out a notebook—there was a good deal of disturbance while he was speaking; my attention was taken away from time to time—I can recollect what I heard, the other parts I could not—I did not see any pamphlets distributed—I did not hear either of the prisoners say that the Royal Family should be served like Carnot, not in those words—Cantwell made some reference to a speech of Lord Salisbury's.
Re-examined. I cannot remember the words, but I know the effect they had on me at the time, and a number of others—the effect was that several of the Royal Family here ought to be served the same as Monsieur Carnot.

ALFRED HEWLETT . I was a mail-cart driver to Mr. Allen, contractor to the Post Office, for a year and seven months, and I am a pensioner from the Dragoon Guards—on 29th June I went to look at the decorations on Tower Hill; my attention was called to a small crowd near a tea warehouse—there were about twenty or thirty persons, but it increased to a great number—I saw Cantwell on the parapet, holding a yellow pamphlet in front of him—he said, "The Prince of Wales is coming here to-morrow, with all his pomp and vanity, and the Royal Family to open the bridge to-morrow. Support should be given to the widows and children of the men who have lost their lives"—then he said, "Do not allow him to open the bridge. Do away with the Royal Family, and then you will get your rights"—I said to him, "What do you mean? do you want it all?"—he took no notice of that—I said, "I expect you have got a bomb in your pocket now; it is a pity it will not go off and blow your head off"—I said, "Three cheers for the Prince of Wales and the Royal Family," it was responded to by the crowd—I said, "You should be in the dock in front of Mr. Justice Hawkins, with your pal from Chelsea. I suppose you are one of the associates of those engaged in the assassination of M. Carnot"—he said, "Good will come of that, and the crowd hissed him down off the parapet—after that I went to the corner, and he was giving pamphlets away, of the same pattern as this (produced), "Why Vaillant threw the Bomb"—while Cantwell was distributing the pamphlets Quin got up and began to address the crowd—I took out a card from my pocket, and said, "You should have your likeness taken, to know you"—he went on with the same language; the crowd got hot on him, and he had to get down and run—I kept alongside of him—he ran into a church; I went in and saw him go into a pew—the police went in and he was sitting reading a book; I pointed him out, and the Inspector came in and took his name and address—they took him out at the back door, and that was the last I saw of him—I did not see what became of Cantwell—he ran down Seething Lane way, followed by a number of the crowd—I ran close alongside of him, and asked him what he had done with the bill he had in front of him—he said it was stolen away from him.

Cross-examined. I have no occupation at present—I was last employed the week before last; I left Mr. Allen's on the second day of the year—I was standing against a post at this meeting, only the width of the pavement off—I don't know any of the witnesses in the case—I used the word "bomb"—I interrupted the speaker—I had not been to other, meetings—I have been to Ireland taking charge of a boycotted farm—when I was discharged from the army—I have my character for thirty-six years—I said at Guildhall that I was at Kilkenny—I did not assist in any police case in Ireland—I left my last employment, here I had been ten years and seven months, on account of a little dispute; they accused me of being under the influence of drink—I was fined for it once—I was not a member of the Carmen's Union; I was totally against them; I was asked to join, but I did not—I never got a list of the members; I never mixed myself up with them—I was never entrusted with funds to take care of—I was never accused of misappropriating any; I swear that.

ALFRED WILLIAM MARTIN . I sell guide books to the Tower, outside the Tower gates—about half-past one on Friday, the 29th of June, I saw Cantwell standing on the wall opposite the tea warehouse with a yellow bill in his hand—there were about seventy to eighty people round him—I he began speaking about the Tower Bridge—he said the bridge should be opened by the people; they found the money to build the bridge, and they ought to have opened it, instead of the Royal vermin and political reptiles—somebody called out "How about Carnot?"—he said, "We shall have some more of that here; we have made ourselves felt in France, we will make ourselves felt in London, "or" here"—I won't say he said "London"; I think "here" was his exact word—"No doubt there are plenty of men willing to die, and I am willing to lead them"—that was in reference to the opening of the bridge on the morrow—just a minute or two after that there was a general hue and cry, "Lynch him! Lynch him!" and I began to edge off the crowd—there were about 400 or 500 people there—I did not see any papers given away; I saw some with papers in their hands—I saw one was "Why Vaillant threw the bomb," and what I saw in the man's hand looked to me the same kind of thing—I heard Quin say, "Fellow workmen," and then there was a general melee and I did not hear what he said—I heard no speech at all on the part of Quin; it was simply Cantwell I heard speaking.

Cross-examined. I did not take any notes—I think I have a very good memory, considering my age—I might have said before the Magistrate that I had a middling memory—there was a good deal of disturbance at the close of Cantwell's speech—I did not see anybody distributing the pamphlets—the men who halloaed at them looked like men come out for their dinner, or that class of men—I live at 206, Globe Road, Mile End—I have resided there upwards of six months—Constable 402 came to me, and spoke to me with reference to this matter.
Re-examined. He knew I was there—he asked what I had heard—I told him, and he conducted me to the solicitor at Guildhall, and I gave him my proof.

HENRY BRADEN . On 29th June I was on Tower Hill, between one and two—I saw Cantwell standing on the parapet, holding in his left hand a yellow paper, with black letters on it—I heard him speak—he spoke of the Prince of Wales, the Queen, and Royal Family—he said, "Working men, fight for your rights;" the working men that built the bridge were the persons to open it, and not such a man as the Prince of Wales, who got his money for nothing; the working men ought to share the same fate as anyone else if they put up with the English law; the deeds that had been done were not half bad enough to any extent—there was hooting, and groaning and hissing, and I could not hear all he said—the crowd called out, "How about Carnot?"—he said, "You will hear some more shortly"—he said working men had been killed during the building of the bridge, and their widows and children ought to receive some recompense, but there was only the workhouse—then there was hooting and groaning again, and hissing all the time—I walked down from where I was standing at the back, and came up to the Tiptop tea warehouse, and as I got to the wall he handed the paper to the second speaker, Quin, but I did not hear him speak—after Cantwell got down from the wall I went up to him and said, "You dirty dog, you ought to be ashamed of yourself, speaking in the manner you have; you ought to be shot"—I asked him if he was an Anarchist—he said, "Yes"—I said, "A bright specimen, too"—the crowd called out—he pushed me on the chest, and I pushed him back and called him a dirty dog again—the crowd called out, "Lynch him!"—I followed him across Tower Hill till we got to the corner of Barking Alley, and I said, I Get along, you dirty dog; you are an Anarchist"—he put his hand in the breast of his coat, and I called him a dirty dog again—when I got into Barking Alley the constables forced their way through the crowd, and I left and went to my work—I had been at my work ten minutes when I heard hooting and groaning, and I came up the cellar-flap and saw him going into the Police-station in Seething Lane—that was the last I saw of him.

Cross-examined. I am a cellarman—I said at Guildhall that I had assisted the police—I have on several occasions—that was why I refused my address—I have had several rewards from the police—I don't feel inclined to tell you the assistance I have rendered to the police—there were no Anarchists concerned in it—I think it is everyone's duty to assist the police; I have done so for twenty years—no one told me to come and give evidence; I came on my own account—I was about twenty yards from the speakers on this occasion—I heard Cantwell, not Quin—I had never seen the witness Hewlett before I saw him in Court at Guildhall—I did not take notice of anyone interrupting the speakers—I have never interrupted other speakers—I was on Tower Hill on 23rd July because I come out there to have my dinner every day—I saw people there distributing bills, asking for witnesses—I did not follow them about; I walked about, as I generally do—I told Cantwell he ought to be shot, and not only him, all of them—he pushed me first, and I pushed him several times; three or four times—he did not strike me; I expected him to do so—I did not see anyone else strike him.

THOMAS LOCK . I am chief messenger of the London Produce Clearing House—on Friday, 29th June, I was on Tower Hill in my dinner hour—Cantwell was standing on the parapet, with a yellow bill in his left hand, pasted on brown paper—he was alluding to working men, and speaking of the warehouses being chock full of provisions, etc., which the working men produced for the loafing, idle classes—I saw persons giving out a few small bills—after Cantwell had done speaking Quin got up—Cantwell gave him the yellow bill, and he alluded to the working men—then he went on speaking about the Tower Bridge, and with reference to Carnot, the late President of France, said, No doubt out of a little harm that was done great good will come of it"—one gentleman in the crowd shouted out, "What would you do, throw bombs?"—he said, "Yes, if I did throw bombs it would be for the benefit of the working men, but not the Royal Family; I love the working men, but I hate the Royal Family"—that he shouted out in a loud voice—he said something in between, which I could not remember, because there was such a rowing and shouting—he shouted out in a loud voice, "D—the Queen"—after that he got down, or he was hunted down from the parapet.

Cross-examined. I refused to give my address at Guildhall—if his Lordship wants my address I can tell him where I have been for seventeen years—I have been employed in one place twelve years, and five years in another—I am not ashamed of my name—I did not read the pamphlet—this (produced) is not the one—I have very often heard Quin speaking at meetings of the unemployed—he always used violent language—I have complained to the police, and they have told me that they had no power to take the man into custody from the parapet—I said it was a shame, and the police said it laid with Parliament, not with them, for allowing liberty of speech on Tower Hill—I was greatly disappointed—I never interrupted him—I heard no one else swearing in the crowd—I never use the word, "damn"—I am a Christian; I damn nobody—Quin did not say that he was a Christian Communist, or a Christian Anarchist Communist—I never heard him quote the Bible.
Re-examined. I am ashamed of my address, because I go in fear—I have been visited already by some of these ruffians.

HERBERT STEPHEN TERRY . I am a clerk—about two o'clock on the 29th June I was on Tower Hill—there was a crowd there, and Quin was addressing them—I saw him get down from the parapet—someone hit him, and then both prisoners ran away, and both ran into a church—I saw Cantwell pushed out—I followed him; he ran up Mincing Lane into Fenchurch Street and Grace-church Street, where a policeman stopped him outside a building in Grace-church Street—he dropped this knife; it was shut.
Cross-examined. I refused my address; the police did not tell me to do so—I am not sure whether Cantwell threw the knife away or dropped it—I don't know if it is used in his trade—I saw in the paper that the prisoners were charged, and I came of myself to give evidence—I gave my statement to Constable 708, and I gave him the knife afterwards.

JOHN DENTRY (708 City). About 2.30 p.m. on 29th June I saw Cantwell in Gracechurch Street, trying to get away from the crowd that surrounded him—he had this red pocket-handkerchief in his hand, and he shouted out "I am an Anarchist"—it was a very hostile crowd of 300 or 400 people, wanting to get at him—they called out "Lynch him"—I made my way through the crowd and took hold of him, and asked him if he was an Anarchist—he replied, "You will find out some day"—he had some little papers in his left hand and this red handkerchief in his right hand—I cannot say if these are the same little papers—on going through Leadenhall Market he put them in his pocket with the handkerchief—at the station I charged him with disorderly conduct in the street—the traffic was stopped; the crowd was so thick—Inspector Collins at the station asked him if he was an Anarchist—he said, "Yes, I am"—he was detained in custody—on searching him I found among other things sixteen letters and a post card of 12th May, 1894, to the editor of the Commonweal, 24, Sidmouth Mews—one of the letters is dated June 6th, 1894: "Dear Thomas,—You must get the Weal out, and early, too, else the money outstanding will not be forthcoming.—H. B. Samuel"—another of the 13th June referred to his being hard up and in want of money—another of the letters asked for pamphlets to be sent, "Chances for Socialists," "The Commune of Paris," "Peter Krapotkine." &c.; another letter finished with the words, "Hurrah for Dynamite"—I also found on him eleven copies of the pamphlet, "Why Vaillant threw the bomb," a book entitled, "Songs for Socialists," two memorial cards, "In Loving Memory of Martial Bourdin," some cuttings from news-papers, some unused stamps, and 7s. 9 3/4; d.—he was brought before the Alderman on 30th June, and remanded till the following 4th July, the charge being disorderly conduct—on 4th July he was charged with inciting to murder—I believe Quin was seen at the Police-court that day—he was afterwards charged and placed in the dock for the same offence, of inciting to murder.

Cross-examined. Cantwell had some papers in his left hand; I could not swear to them—I found them afterwards in the same pocket with his handkerchief which he had in his right hand: he was more wiping the perspiration off his face with it than waving it about—I found some of these pamphlets upon him: "Why are we Anarchists?"—they were in different pockets of his trousers and coat.

ELI SALTER COLLINS (Inspector, City). I was in charge of Seething Lane Police-station when Cantwell was brought in on Friday, 29th June—I saw Dentry search him, and the property found on him was handed to me; among other things was this key—I asked him to what it belonged—he said, "It is the key of my place;" he had previously given his address as 24, Sidmouth Mews—I had seen both prisoners before, on Tower Hill.
Cross-examined. The key was handed to Detective Cox with the other property, for him to make inquiries—subsequently the police took possession of the place; I believe possession was given up to the prisoner's solicitor—I have no idea what Cantwell is—I have seen the prisoner at the meetings of the unemployed on Tower Hill—I have heard Quin speaking; they were generally rather violent—some of them were meetings of the unemployed, and some were Socialists mixed with Anarchists—I should not like to say what the distinction between Socialists and Anarchists is.

BENJAMIN HART . I am a picture dealer, of 8, Prima Road, Brixton—in December, 1892, I let the loft, 24, Sidmouth Mews, to Cantwell on a verbal agreement—he paid six shillings a week—he said he wanted the premises as a printing office—I was then in the front part of the establishment, and I received my own rent from him from week to week—this is the rent-book—since then Mr. Pullen has collected the rent; I disposed of it.
Cross-examined. I knew Cantwell as a printer—I believe the premises went into the hands of the owner when I left.

FREDERICK CHARLES PULLEN . I am clerk to Mr. W. D. Pullen, estate agent, of 45, Red Lion Street—I and my brother collected the rent of 24, Sidmouth Mews—I received the rent of six shillings from Cantwell—this is he rent-book, showing that the rent was paid down to 23rd June.
Cross-examined. I cannot say in whose possession the premises are now; we collected for the trustees—we are still agents—I believe the police are in possession of the workshop; I don't know if they have given it up to the proprietors of the newspaper—some young fellow, not the prisoner, came and paid the rent last time—I know the prisoner to be a compositor, or printer.

HENRY COX (Detective Sergeant, City). On 30th June I went to 24, Sidmouth Mews with a key which Inspector Collins handed to me—the door was locked; the key opened it—I was there on Tuesday, 3rd July, between eight and nine p.m, when Quin came—I stopped him at the end of the steps which led to the loft—I said, "What do you want?"—he said, "I am one of the group"—I said, "Will you give me your name?"—he said, "No"—I said, "The place is in the possession of the police and no one is allowed there"—he went away—I afterwards assisted Sager to arrest Quin in the precincts of the Guildhall Justice Room—we asked his address—he said, "5, Whitecross Place, Wilson Street." 

Cross-examined. When Quin came to the Commonweal office I told him I was a police officer—he did not ask me to produce my authority—I have since learnt that by "group," he meant Anarchist group; I did not know he referred to the Commonweal group—I cannot say he did not—he was quite orderly—Quin was arrested on 4th July, when he was a spectator at Cantwell's trial at the Guildhall—the Commonweal office is not now in the possession of the police—I believe it was given up to Mr. Radford, solicitor, of 40, Chancery Lone; I cannot say whether he is solicitor for the prisoner or for the proprietor of the newspaper—I received my instructions to hand over the key to the solicitor—I found on Quin when he was arrested two shorthand notes for sermons at St. Botolph's Church, Aldgate—they were not Anarchist literature; he said they were valuable documents. 

JOHN WALSH (Detective Sergeant). I was present on 1st July at 24, Sidmouth Mews, a loft over a stable approached by a step ladder—I there found a printing machine and a set of type; several copies of a pamphlet, "Why Vaillant threw the bomb," sixty-three in one bundle and sixteen in another; about sixty-five copies of the yellow placard, and a quantity of other literature; some copies of the Commonweal; some pamphlets called, "What Anarchists Want," "The Walsall Anarchists," "Chance for Socialists," "A Talk About Anarchist Communism," "Facts for Socialists," and so on—they exceed two hundred—I found some photographs of Ravachol; memorial cards of Bourdin; this manuscript book relating to chemistry; a five-chamber revolver, loaded in four chambers—there was a couch in the room, which was used for living and sleeping in, as well as a newspaper office, apparently—Sager was with me at this time—the manuscript chemistry book might have been left for the purpose of printing. (MR. MATHEWS read a few extracts from the book)—I see the passage, "Great care must be taken that the oil of vitriol or sulphuric acid be not brought into contact with these explosives, as the smallest drop will instantly explode it"—I brought it away with the their things.

Cross-examined. My knowledge of chemistry is very limited indeed—this manuscript book is written by Mr. Barker, whom I know very well; in my opinion it is in his writing—it is lectures on the general history of chemistry—the name, "W. Barker," appears on the second page—there are a great many recipes for making explosives, but it all has relation to chemistry, so far as I can judge; it does not relate exclusively to explosives—there are three or four explosive recipes in the whole book; there may be several others if the book were examined minutely by a person who understood it—I don't know if any ordinary chemical book would have recipes for explosives—the last line of the Vaillant pamphlet is, "Issued by the Necessity Group of English Anarchists"—as far as I can say I should say that group is the same as the Commonweal group; they are all the same group, and the same membership; there is no distinction whatever—I have never heard that the English Anarchists of the Commonweal group have always strongly deprecated outrage—I never heard that the English Anarchists of the Freedom group always deprecated outrage—I do not know that this pamphlet (produced) deprecates outrage; I have not read it—I know most of the people in this photograph; they are not the members of the old Socialist League—most of them are members of the Commonweal group of Anarchists—I do not recognise anybody in it who was a member of the old Socialist League when the photograph was taken some time ago—I know many of the members of that league—it is difficult to answer whether Socialists advocate outrage—some are very extreme, and some are very moderate—speaking of Socialists as a whole, I should gay "No"—Mr. John Burns, M.P., and Mr. Tom Mann were members of the old Socialist League—I do not know if Cantwell has worked in America—some copies of this pamphlet were found at the Commonweal office two and a half years ago—it is no crime, I believe, to have a revolver in this country, so long as a man has a license; you want a license to carry one, and I suppose that is about the same as having it in the house—I have heard Quin speak several times in Hyde Park—I was present there on May 1st, when a meeting of English Anarchists was broken up—I assisted in keeping the public back from them—I did not assist in breaking up the meeting, nor did I suggest to anybody to break it up—the language got so inflammatory that the crowd broke it up, and if it had not been restrained it would have killed them—I did not strike anyone, I was assaulted myself—Quin was arrested on 6th May, in Hyde Park; I heard the Magistrate dismiss the charge—I took notes of a meeting on the 16th January; I have destroyed my notes—we attended the meetings on Tower Hill to frustrate any attempt to proceed to the West-end or destroy property—we generally take notes and compare them, and then one officer will make out a report and read it to the others, and if it is agreed to it is kept for a record, and the notes are destroyed—this is the report of the meeting of 16th January—at that meeting, Williams, the secretary of the unemployed, announced Quin as chairman—Williams is not an Anarchist—I did not forcibly remove a witness for the defence last Saturday—about twenty persons were standing outside the door, and as I was going out a dangerous Anarchist put himself in my way, and I moved him out of the way with my hand—I did not put my hand on a lady and move her out of the way

Re-examined. At the meeting on 1st May, in Hyde Park, at which Quin was a speaker, very violent speeches were delivered, and the crowd broke up the meeting—at the Tower Hill meeting, on 16th February, Quin said, "Fellow workmen, I have come here to-day as I have a few hours to spare; I must tell you I have employment during the evening, but it is not sufficient to keep me from agitating. Of course, you are all well aware I am an Anarchist, and if you will only adopt our system, and follow the principles of my colleagues and myself, you will soon obtain your object; using bombs and any other destructive weapons you can do something to forward the cause"—I have been present on many other occasions when he has made speeches advocating the use of force; he always does so; it is notorious—his own colleagues would say they never knew him make a mild speech in his life—his speeches are always characterised by inflammatory languagetwo and a half years ago I was present at the Commonweal office for the purpose of arresting the then editor, Nichol, and Mowbray, and seizing the type—Cantwell then opened the door to me—the office was searched—I then found a great many pamphlets headed, "Address to the Army"—it is similar to this.
ROBERT SAGER (Detective inspector, city). I searched the premises, 24, Sidmouth Mews—I produce a list ("K") of the things found; I checked it myself—I afterwards pointed out to Mr. De Jersey, the printer, and his assistant, the things that were found—I found several red caps and some red flags, some fencing sticks and masks.

Cross-examined. The chemistry lecture was found in the drawer, I think; I am not quite sure—I cannot say who got hold of it first; we were all there.
JOHN WALSH (Re-examined). I found the manuscript chemistry book in an unlocked drawer of a cupboard under a printing machine—it was not concealed.

ALFRED CHRISTOPHER DE JERSEY . I am a compositor—I have had about thirty years experience in the printing trade—on Thursday, 5th July, I went to 24, Sidmouth Mews, with Cox, and examined the type and printing machine pointed out to me—from the type, as it was set up there, I printed this impression of this yellow placard—it is not complete—the rest of the type was not to be found there—this kind of type is very often borrowed by these small printing offices—I say this I printed is the same as the yellow placard in a skeleton form—I took these pulls from twenty four stereotype plates I found there—among them is a pamphlet of two pages, headed. "An Address to the Army"—I also pulled off other pamphlets—I found the type there in case, not set up, for printing the body of the pamphlet, "Why Vaillant threw the bomb," but not for the head or subhead of it. 

Cross-examined. I did not find the type for the skeleton placard set up, but it was scattered about on the premises, some on the floor, some in a box—the last line, "the lazy swine," was in case, thrown in together—I set it up—more than one piece of yellow paper was produced by the police, and I was told to use it to print this—there is hardly a letter in this poster that I could produce from the printing office at which I am engaged—I would rather not state the name of it—I do posters and every class of work—the yellow paper was in the office when I went there—I did not find the ornamental line at the office—I had to print the imitation placard by doubling the paper, and printing with two separate formes and two impressions—unless that were done in a proper manner you would have a set-off—there is a set-off in this placard of the words rascally politicians"—if it were not folded properly it might not come true; but you can make it come true—it would be a slow process; it is an old fashioned press—if only a few numbers were required you could print the placard in the press I found in the office—I feel quite sure this was printed in this press—I do not consider a compositor responsible for everything in a printing office—the Vaillant pamphlet is printed in four kinds of type—I only saw one kind of type for the principal part of the pamphlet, two pages—I did not find the type for the third or fourth pages—I never gave evidence for the police before this case—the type I did find was very common in printing offices. 

JOHN DAVIDSON (Detective Inspector, City). On 14th July I was present at the Guildhall Police-court when Quin was arrested—he gave his address as 5, Whitecross Place, Wilson Street—I went there and searched his lodgings—I found nothing bearing on this case.
Cross-examined. I found some tracts, which Quin's brother claimed as his property.

[Part 2, the Defence, follows]

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