Wednesday, June 1, 2016

Little stories from the Old Bailey: Anarchist on trial 1894

(It's a long story, so posting in 2 parts)

Cops and Rabbits
    - and Stoves and Substances...

A bit of background in front -

"On 1 June, a German Anarchist named Fritz Brall, a member of the Autonomie Club, was arrested in Chelsea." 

John Quail gives a brief account of Brall's arrest and trial on pp.173-4 of The Slow-Burning Fuse: The Lost History of the British Anarchists, Granada Publishing 1978. 

He has occasion to mention several other members of the trial's cast-list and off-stage personalities in the course of his chapters on 'The Walsall Anarchists' and 'The Greenwich Explosion'. For example:-
  • Inspector Melville and his (Special Branch) 'gang' - frequent mentions in his role of anarchist-hunter, well-known in the anarchist press, including disruption of meetings and demonstrations, e.g. with a 'bodyguard' of 'roughs' p.171.
  • Detectives Sween[e]y "the Perjurer" and Walsh likewise - Sweeny "burgled a printshop used by French exiles" p.157.
  • Sergeant McIntyre, mentioned as having been replaced by Flood - his perceived (comparative) 'softness' towards anarchists is thought to have been the cause of his being forced out of the police (p.127 ). Later (April 1895) Reynold's News "printed the memoirs of ex-DS McIntyre [which] made it clear that Coulon had been a paid police agent"  (pp.200-1).
    On the other hand Alex Butterworth, in The World that Never Was (Vintage, 2011, pp.333-4), gets it a bit mixed up, referring not to the trial but somewhat puzzlingly to "a pair of anarchists, Ricken and Brall, who had previously been suspected by nighbours of manufacturing bombs, [who] suddenly disappeared, two days after Bourdin's death [at Greenwich]... " Perhaps this has to do with someone else having allegedly used Brall's name when arrested, or just a one-off slip in a welter of detail. Butterworth seems sound on Melville and other SB figures, however, references to whose nefarious doings are more consistent with the record.

"Scotland Yard's Special Branch, the world's oldest unit dedicated to tackling political violence... was established in 1883 to counter Irish "Fenian" terrorism on mainland Britain..." 

Many of those named  in the report below can also be checked out elsewhere, as can the events alluded to throughout (some links given).

Edited from Old Bailey Proceedings transcript
(most spelling of names etc. as on original even when erratic) 

FRITZ BRALL, Damage to Property > other, 25th June 1894.
See also original published transcript [page by page]                       

OLD COURT, Tuesday and Wednesday, 3rd and 4th July, 1894
Before Mr. Justice Grantham
580. FRITZ BRALL , Feloniously having in his possession certain explosive substances, under such circumstances as to give rise to a reasonable suspicion of his having them for an unlawful purpose.


(Evidence for the Prosecution)
LOUIS KELTERBORN . I live at 20, Pitt Street, Tottenham Court Road—I occupy the parlours on the ground floor with my wife—I know the prisoner as living on the second floor front for about two and a half years; he had one large room divided into two by a partition—he was a cabinet-maker—he had a small workshop in the back of the yard of No. 20; he kept that workshop to himself, but only partially—I had heard of the Autonomie Club in Windmill Street, a few yards off; I was not aware that the prisoner was a member of it—I never had any conversation with him about it—a large number of persons came to see him, nearly all foreigners; I might say all—I have seen them in the middle of the day, but mostly of an evening; some would stay all night—they would stay very late at night, and go away at an early hour of the morning—they went into the prisoner's room—I have sometimes seen boxes brought on a hand-barrow, and taken away sometimes next morning—I think on one occasion I have seen a box or two brought and taken away the next morning; but at other times boxes have gone away without returning—I think on three or four occasions I have seen boxes go away; I think they were mostly brought in the daytime—about two or three brought the boxes; they may have stayed there till the next day—the visitors brought boxes with them; I thought it was luggage—I remember once hearing the prisoner speaking to someone at the street door; I believe he was out of employment at the time, and he was complaining of the state of society—I heard him say the shops were full of goods, and yet at the same time you would see shoemakers without shoes, tailors without clothes, and cabinet-makers without furniture; but I do not remember the exact words of anything beyond that—he was generally very excited at such times—I cannot remember anything else he said at the time; he was somewhat incoherent in his utterance—I remember on one occasion a foreigner coining to the house and staying there for some little time—the prisoner engaged an empty room for him on the first floor back, and introduced him as his friend, saying his furniture was coming from France, but it did not come from France—the prisoner found the furniture; furnished the room for him—I could not remember the friend's name, but to the best of my recollection it was Schmidt, the German of Smith—I remember hearing of the visit of the police to the Autonomie Club, and early the next morning, or the following morning, Brail hastily removed his goods—I have ever been on friendly terms with him—I had no knowledge of his going that morning—his wife went as well, and the rooms were left vacant.

Cross-examined. I do not fix the date of his going away—I say he went away a day or two after the raid on the Autonomie Club—that was a rather important event, and I had my own ideas on the subject why the prisoner went away: I connected the two together—I only knew the club as a neighbour—I don't know the business of the club; all I know is a club of that name existed in Windmill Street—on two or three occasions luggage was left at the prisoner's—he had a great many visitors always—there was no concealment about leaving the luggage; it was always done openly—I was aware that for a considerable time the prisoner was the secretary of a Trade Union—I always thought his visitors looked very much like German Jews—I am an Englishman of foreign parentage on one side—I believe the prisoner is a German—I should naturally expect his friends to be Germans.

Re-examined. I never held any political conversation with the prisoner; I merely passed the time of day with him as one neighbour would do to another—I never heard from him anything about this friendly society.
By The COURT. He never suggested to me that he was a member or secretary of a Trade Union.

ELLEN KELTERBORN . I am the wife of the last witness, and live at 20, Pitt Street—I remember a man named Schmidt taking the back room first floor—Mr. Brall brought him—I cannot tell the date; it was a year and nine months ago—he had no furniture—Brall supplied him with a bedstead—Schmidt paid his own rent to the landlord—he never went out much—I could not say whether he went out during the day—I do not know whether he wore glasses; I did not see him much in the day time—he was a dark man, that is all I know, with curly hair—I don't know whether he wore glasses when he went out; I do not know anything about it; I only know the man—I never saw him in glasses; he may have worn them; I do not know—I made a statement to the inspector of police; I did not sign it, I never signed any paper whatever—the inspector came and asked me for my statement, that I let a room to a Frenchman named Schmidt—the statement was read over to me—this (Produced) is it, it is quite right—I never said, "He never went out of doors during the day, and he always wore glasses"—I never saw him in glasses; I never mentioned those words—I never saw the man out of doors at all—I was shown a photograph of him (Looking at a photograph)—that is the man—that is the man I let the room to—Brall paid the man's rent once or twice I believe; he did when his wife was away.
Cross-examined. Mrs. Fox told me that he wore glasses, but I never saw him in glasses; I was never told that he had any other name.

ELIZABETH FOX . I am the wife of Charles Fox, a cab driver, of 20, Pitt Street, Tottenham Court Road—we occupy the third floor front room, and the prisoner's room was just below us, the second floor front—I had no talk with him while in the house—a good many foreigners came to see him—I did not notice whether they brought luggage with them—I heard of this raid on the Autonomie Club, but do not know whether he was living at 20, Pitt Street, then—I remember his leaving, but cannot say how long that was after the raid—I was in my room about Christmas, and heard a very sharp noise, just like a gun—I was kneeling, scrubbing the floor, and the vibration moved the boards—I felt it on my knees, and jumped up directly—the noise came from underneath—it was about two o'clock in the day—Mrs. Foster was in my room, and we both ran on to the landing, and about ten minutes afterwards Mr. Brall came out, and went downstairs—I said nothing to him—on another day I noticed nothing as to the window of his room—I have heard similar noises since that on several occasions—I heard three one Sunday afternoon one after the other from the same place—I stopped in my own room, but my husband went on the landing, and halloaed down the stairs to them, and then I saw smoke coming from the room underneath me—I have not heard any similar noises since—I heard one similar noise before the Sunday afternoon; that was eleven o'clock at night—I heard them two or three times in the evening between ten and eleven, but only once on each evening—I have noticed two or three men who wore glasses in the house with the prisoner; one of them lived in the first floor back while the prisoner was living in the house.

Cross-examined. I was frightened when I heard these explosions—I did not see the man who wore glasses very often, and when I did I took no notice of him—I do not think I should know his photograph—I complained once to Mrs. Kelterborn about the explosions, but not afterwards; I did not think anything about what they were—the fireplace in the prisoner's room was one with an oven—I cannot describe it; I never was in the room; I only knew the room when he took it—I don't know what stove he had himself—I have seen the Dutch stoves which stand out in the middle of the room—they have a large pipe, a flue running from the stove and going up the chimney—I think it is very difficult to keep that flue clean—I don't know whether it has to be taken to pieces or a little gunpowder used to take the soot down—I did not complain to the prisoner when I saw him on the stairs—I take an interest in this case—I do not remember telling Mrs. Kelterborn that Schmidt used to wear spectacles, but it is a long time ago—I think this is the man (Looking at a photograph)—I am not certain—I cannot see a name in the left hand corner—I do not know that the man was acquitted—I merely passed the time of day with Mrs. Brall—I never had any conversation with her.
Re-examined. The first explosion I heard was just before Christmas, and it was a fortnight before I heard any more—I cannot say when the last one was, but they went on for about a month or six weeks—I think there were seven or eight explosions in that time.

MARY ANN CHARLOTTE FOSTER . I am the wife of William Foster, of 20, Pitt Street—I was in Mr. Fox's room one day before Christmas and heard a very loud report, which appeared to come from the room underneath, occupied by the prisoner—Mrs. Fox called out, but there was no answer—I heard a similar noise about a fortnight later, in the night—I heard three noises altogether—one Sunday afternoon I was asleep, and heard Mr. Fox call down the stairs—I did not know that the prisoner was going to leave till I saw his room empty in the morning—I had to go downstairs for a bundle of wood at 6.30 a.m., and saw him and his wife outside with a barrow.
Cross-examined. I was greatly frightened at hearing these dreadful explosions, and complained to my landlady—I do not know whether the prisoner was moving his tools and some cabinet-making work in the barrow that morning—I was at Westminster Police-court, and opposite Scotland Yard, and at the Treasury, and then at this place—I was never at the Police-court as a witness in any other case in my life—I only knew Mrs. Brall to pass the time of day with her—I only saw one gentleman with glasses.
Re-examined. I saw him up and downstairs when I passed—I cannot tell whether he lived in the house; I only saw him early in the morning—I have seen him in the house during the day; he came from Brall's room—I cannot say whether he occupied a room in the house.

JAMES BARTON . I live at 118, Titchfield Street—I am landlord of 20, Pitt Street—the woman who lives in the parlour let a room to the prisoner—he or his wife paid the rent—I used to collect it every Monday night or Thursday—the woman in charge of the parlour lets the rooms, I only collect the rents—tenants should give notice when they are going to leave, but I am sorry to say they never did—Brall was a weekly tenant—I never got any notice of his intention to give up his room—as far as my knowledge goes no notice was given, and when I went round there on the Monday evening I found he was gone—the room was empty, and three weeks' rent was due, which has never been paid—no statement was made to me as to where he had gone, or where I could find him.
Cross-examined. He was my tenant about two and a half years, and he or his wife paid the rent all but three weeks—I read of the raid on the Autonomie Club, but I do not know anything about it—I do not belong to any club; I would not.

ANNIE ROSE WOOD . I am the wife of Joseph Thomas Wood, of 30, Jubilee Place, King's Road, Chelsea—on February 24th the prisoner came to lodge in our house—in the first instance, a woman came and took the rooms, giving the name of Mrs. Ravine, and afterwards the prisoner came and gave his name as Mr. Ravine—they took the kitchen and top floor front—they stopped with me ten weeks—they had a good many visitors, principally foreigners—a man stopped with them a portion of the time, who Mr. Brall said was a Dutchman—I do not know what his name was—I remember some loud talking downstairs, but did not go down; I stood on the stairs and asked them to be quiet and shut the door and make a little less noise, and next morning he gave me notice—I believe the Dutchman slept in the kitchen, and the prisoner said he was going back to Holland.
Cross-examined. The prisoner had a Dutch stove—he kept some rabbits in the cellar—I believe he is a foreigner; his wife told me that she was Dutch—one of the rabbits died while they were with me, but they took some away when they left—I did not notice a peculiarly shaped box when they were moving out.
Re-examined. They kept about three or four rabbits, I think—he had the kitchen and the third floor; the cellar is in the front, on a level with the kitchen; I mean the area; it is quite under the street—the rabbits lived in a hutch—I know that one died, because I saw it dead when I was going to fetch some coal; my cellar was opposite theirs; it was lying on the stones—I do not know why it died, or how it came to die; it was about a month old, I should think—it was born while he was there—I do not believe they killed them, or ate them—I do not know who attended to them.

JAMES COLAN . I live at 8, Little Smith Street—in February last I was working for Mr. Vitz, a cabinet-maker—about the month of February the prisoner came there to work as a cabinet-maker—I knew him by the name of Fritz when he came first—I became acquainted with him by being a fellow workman—after he had been there some little time, and I had been working with him, he asked if he could have letters addressed to the shop—I said, "No," he could leave them at the corner—I knew he was living at this time at Jubilee Place, to the best of my knowledge—he said he did not think he should remain there long; he was not satisfied, and he talked about removing; something to that effect—he asked if he could have some letters addressed to me—I said, "Yes"—I gave him my name and address in writing—he said, "Can I have some letters addressed to you?"—I said, "Why?"—he said, "There is nothing in it, no more than I am not going to stay long where I am. Leave it on a piece of paper," and I gave it to him—he said they were foreign letters in the ordinary way—after that letters were delivered at my house, No. 8, Little Smith Street, and a few papers came and a post-card or two—they were mostly letters from the Continent—he afterwards gave me the name of Ravine and afterwards Brail—I could not say exactly whether he gave me the name of Brail before the letters came or when they were coming—how was it he gave me the name of Brail? I do not know—he wrote it on the table, and I said, "Then Fritz was your Christian name?"—he said, "Yes"—afterwards he said, "That is my proper name, Brall"—I helped him to remove his goods from Jubilee Place to Park Walk in a builder's van—two other friends helped him to move; they were not foreigners—there was a little fellow that worked in the shop—I do not know in what name the house at 54, Park Walk, was taken—I did not give permission for it to be taken in my name—I was in the house, 54, Park Walk, on the 31st of May, when the officers came—I was engaged in doing some work there to a chiffonnier for the prisoner—I do not know if it was one of the things removed from Park Walk—I had not been at Park Walk long, perhaps not half an hour, when the officers came—the officers showed me at Park Walk on that day an agreement bearing a name very similar to mine; the Christian name was not the same, and the other name was not quite the same; there was an "o" instead of an "a".

Cross-examined. I was working on a piece of work for the prisoner when the police came—he used to get work done in his off hours on his own account—I had done a piece for him before that he manufactured himself—he was the leading hand at Vitz's; there were not a number of men there—the prisoner is a hardworking man; he came early in the morning and left at the usual time, and he would work later if required to do so—in workshops men are known by their Christian names as a rule—I was not surprised to find that Fritz was his Christian name—I was with the prisoner when he brought the rabbits some weeks before—he took them in the van from Jubilee Place to Park Walk—he had them in a cellar in Park Walk, I think—in Jubilee Place they were in a cellar loose, I believe—they were taken in a basket or small box in the van—I believe that a young rabbit died in the cellar—when helping to move the furniture to Park Walk, I did not notice anything broken—there was nothing unusual about the prisoner—I cannot say I ever heard him advocate violent measures—I worked in the same room with the prisoner at Vitz's—I had a good many opportunities of speaking to him—before he asked me to take letters for him he asked the number of Vitz's shop—there was no number to it; it is only a loft over a stable—I understood that he did not intend to have letters addressed there as there was no number—when the prisoner removed to Park Walk there was no attempt at concealment; it was a middle-sized builder's open van with no cover—it was five o'clock, I think, when we started; they went to get the van at out three, but there were no horses in—it was light; everything could be seen—I had merely started to unscrew the piece of furniture when the police came—there was polish there, methylated spirits, and varnish—at Vitz's brasswork on cabinets is generally sent to the brass finisher to be regilded, and if it is inlaid we rub it down with pumice and oil—the van came back a second time for the rest of the goods—we filled the four-wheeled van twice out of the two rooms.
Re-examined. I saw the rabbits running loose in the kitchen and cellar at Jubilee Place; they were moved in a basket or box—I saw no hutch—I saw the rabbits at Park Walk the night they moved in, not afterwards—the methylated spirits I was using were ordinary methylated spirits such as French polishers use.

ALFRED JOSEPH HOLLAND . I have an office at 120, King's Road, Chelsea, and am a surveyor and estate agent—I was agent for 54, Park Walk, which was to let, and on April 28th I let it to the prisoner in the name of Johann Colon—this is the agreement; it was for—36 a year for the whole house, at a month's notice.

EDWARD FLOOD . I am a police sergeant in the Criminal Investigation Department—on May 31st last I went, with Inspectors Melville, Sweeney, and Walsh, to 54, Park Walk—in consequence of a message from Inspector Melville I went to Vitz's, a cabinet-maker, in a street near by—I saw the prisoner there and told him that Chief Inspector Melville and other officers were at his house and would require him to be there—he said, "Hallo, what's up now? Are you looking for some more dynamite?"—a little time after, while changing his clothes, he remarked, "I wish I had nothing to do with these fellows"—I then took him in a cab to 54, Park Walk—he was there when the officers searched the house—I found this pocket-book on a table.

Cross-examined. I have known the prisoner for some long time—I had previously been to his house in Pitt Street, on two occasions, for the purpose of making inquiries with reference to the man Francois, not to search the house—I said on the first occasion that I was a police officer—at the time I found the pocket-book the prisoner and his wife were downstairs, not detained there—I kept it in my possession till the following morning; that was all I found—on the previous occasion I called at his house I was not inquiring for Francois—the prisoner had no conversation with me about Francois—I was concerned in the search made at the Autonomie Club; it was a club composed of foreigners of different nationalities—us far as I knew they were Anarchists—I do not know that there are two distinct classes of opinion amongst them—I do not know much about the prisoner—I believe he is a hard-working man—I was aware that he was in Mr. Vitz's shop as a cabinet maker—I did not find him unwilling to give me access to his house—I was at his house on an occasion about some person I was looking for—the prisoner was in the room at the time; he opened the door—on this occasion I saw several heaps of literature, principally in German—I became acquainted with the prisoner about twelve months ago—I went to his lodgings to make inquiry about Friedingsdorff; that was the first time, a year ago.

Re-examined. The Autonomie Club was composed almost entirely of foreigners living in London—the premises of the club were in Windmill Street—it had been under the observation of the police for a long time—it was on the 16th February that I went there with other officers to make inquiries—every person in the house was searched, and a number of documents were taken possession of—the club has since been broken up—the fact of what happened there was well known in the neighbourhood the following day.
By the JURY. It was from information I received that I went to the prisoner's house—it was not at the cabinet-maker's that I first knew him; I knew him twelve months before—I knew him as Brail; that was in Pitt Street.
By the COURT. He had not been communicated with in any way as to the raid on the Autonomie Club, after it was made; he was not there—I knew he was an intimate friend of some of the members of the club—Friedingsdorff was a member of it; that was nine months previous—I think the prisoner had been working for Mr. Vitz about four months; I don't know what he was doing before that.

CHARLES ALBERT . I am an interpreter—I have made a translation of the pamphlet entitled "Revolutionary Scientific Warfare"—it is quite correct—I revised and corrected it, and swear to it being correct—it was done by somebody else—I have seen the pocket-book and the sheets of papers, and have made correct translations of them; they are in German.
EDWARD FLOOD (Recalled by MR. FARELLY). When I first went to Pitt Street I was in company with Sergeant Walsh; I believe he did all the speaking—he inquired if the prisoner knew these foreigners that we were inquiring about—I believe he said, "I have come to inquire about a foreigner"—of my own knowledge the prisoner's house was visited at one time in Pitt Street, and at another time in Jubilee Place—I am not personally aware of any other visits—I do not know that there are two distinct sections of the Anarchists, one section of whom hold moderate opinions on the subject of violence—I know a journal called Freedom—I have seen it, and read it.

JOHN WALSH (Police Sergeant Criminal Investigation Department). I am one of the officers who went to 54, Park Walk, on the afternoon of 31st May—after our arrival there the last witness was sent for the prisoner, and on his return with the prisoner a search was made of the house; in fact a search was made while he went away—it is a six roomed house, and the prisoner, his wife and two children were living there—I went up to the top front room; it was perfectly empty, with the exception of the cupboards—it was not used as a bedroom; there was no furniture whatever—in the cupboard, on shelves, and on top of the cupboard, I found a number of articles; they are here (Box produced)—they were not found in this box; this box was found in the house, but has nothing to do with it—I found a bottle containing dried herbs, two empty glass vessels, also five bottles with glass stoppers containing various fluids, one labelled "nitric acid," two bottles containing a kind of white powder, a grey powder in a piece of brown paper, four empty bottles, two Florence oil flasks, a glass funnel, a spirit lamp, a box with some black powder, a small crucible, with a piece of metal apparently molten, a piece of lead, a box, and some small scales, Dr. Dupre has them, I think; a box with some glass powder, a piece of copper, a box containing ten blank and twentytwo ball cartridges, a piece of metal piping, some electric wire, a quantity of glass tubing, ten pieces, and an electric battery; there was also a quantity of literature, German, Dutch and French—I made a list of the newspapers, which was produced at the Police-court, it is marked "D"; I have a copy of it—one is called The Anarchist, in English, and there are two copies of it (The witness gave the names of other foreign journals, copies of which were found)—most of the literature was in another cupboard, in the same room—there were two cupboards in the same room; the contents of this box were in one cupboard and the literature was lying on the other—I went down again in the front parlour and found a chest of drawers, with two drawers taken out of it—Colan was repairing that chest when we went in—I searched those drawers and found there a large number of letters in the Dutch, French and German languages—there were also in that room four sheets of paper, apparently recipes for making explosives, one headed "Explosive Vaillant"—I also found this photograph of Vaillant, and a book in German in a pink cover, entitled "Scientific Revolutionary Warfare"—this is it—I also found a photograph of a person I knew, named Rabe, a German—Inspector Melville asked the prisoner how he became possessed of these things, and the letters—he said, "They are ordinary letters from comrades and friends, such as anybody would have"—referring to these things Inspector Melville asked him what he wanted them for—he said, "They do not belong to me; only the battery belongs to me, the others belong to a Russian Pole. He was with me about twelve months ago, he was studying chemistry. He lives somewhere in the Whitechapel Road, I believe, I don't know the name," but subsequently he gave the name and Inspector Melville wrote it down—I do not know what the name was; I did not take any notice of it—I then went into the back parlour and made a further search there; that was used as a bedroom—it was the only bedroom in the house—under the bed I found this portmanteau, and in it I found sixteen plaster of Paris moulds, apparently for making counterfeit coin; fifteen of them were for making five franc pieces, and the sixteenth for an English half-crown; they were packed exactly as they are now—I took three of them out of the portmanteau and took them up to the prisoner—I said, "How do you account for these things we found under your bed?"—he said, "Oh, they don't belong to me; they belong to a Frenchman named Fritz, who was in my house when I lived in Jubilee Place"—I said, "Where does Fritz live?"—he said, "In Charlotte Street or Cleveland Street, I don't know which no.—he said, "The box is downstairs"—I said, "What box?"—he said, "The box in which those things came. I knew nothing about it until we were removing, and the box came undone and the things fell out, and I know nothing more about them"—I said, "What are these herbs?"—he said, "I know nothing about them"—those were in the portmanteau; they were exactly similar to the herbs contained in the bottle upstairs—in the portmanteau there was also some literature of a similar character, of a revolutionary character—here is one, a French paper, L'Eclair—I was with Sweeney in the basement of the house when this box was found—the basement is parallel with the cellar—apparently it had been a wine or liqueur box—I was also with Sweeney when some batteries were found in the kitchen; these are two of them—there are two coal cellars in the area; in one there was a little coke, and in the other nothing—in the further one, in the left corner, there was an excavation about two and a half feet wide, by about two and three-quarters in depth—it was lined with wood, sides and bottom, and the earth from the excavation was lying by the side—the top of the wood was about an inch and a half below the surface, so that a lid could be put on it, and be so covered up—there was also some loose wood lying at the side—it had been recently done; the condition of the earth showed it—the prisoner was brought down into the basement—we took him into the cellar, and said, "What is the meaning of that hole? What is the hole for?"—he said, "That is where I keep rabbits"—I said, "It is a funny place to keep rabbits, about three feet under the ground"—he said, "It might be so, but that is what it is for"—a great many foreign newspapers were found in the prisoner's sitting-room, newspapers of a revolutionary character—the prisoner was shortly afterwards taken into custody, and he was searched, and in his possession were found five cards of membership of the United Socialist Society of London—I found no rabbits, or any trace of rabbits having been there—I looked particularly—I asked him where they were, and he said they had died—I produce a photograph of the man Francois—that man arrived in England on the 27th June, 1892—I made inquiry for him at 20, Pitt Street, subsequently to October, 1893—I arrested Francois in Hinde Street, Poplar, on October 13th, 1892—he was passing in the name of Brall—he had papers of Brail about him—in November, 1893, I saw the prisoner—he said, "You have made a great fuss about the running about you have had after Francois; if you had come to my house you could have found him easily. You could have had him without any trouble," or words to that effect—I was present on 16th February at the search of the Autonomie Club, Windmill Street—immediately afterwards the houses further down, within two hundred yards of Tottenham Court Road, were searched the same night.

Cross-examined. I produce everything I found, except a lot of dangerous literature; what has been read is a specimen of them—there were bundles; we took one or two of each—Inspector Melville and myself and other officers took them just as they came—the chemicals were in a cupboard in the top room; the cupboard was not locked—we did not seal them up before taking them away—we found them before the prisoner came; when we found them we sent for the prisoner—the prisoner's wife came upstairs with us; she was in the room when we got them from the cupboard—she was first asked about them, and she said, "I know nothing about them; you had better ask my husband"—she had free access to get about the house; we did not let her leave the house—I put the name "Vaillant" in pencil on this photograph soon after I got it for simplicity of reference—the moulds are exactly in the condition in which I found them; they were not fitted with string—they were closed, in pairs—the prisoner said the box came undone when he was moving—this is the box (Produced)—it is not broken; the lock is imperfect—it would depend upon whether the lock was fastened or not whether it would remain shut if anyone tried to move it—I did not find the key; the box was lying open when we found it—the inscription on the box is: "Absinthe Superieur, Pernod Fils, Maison Fondee, 1805, Convert Suisse et Pontarlier Doubs"—I produce the newspapers as I found them; this one is L Eclair in French—the prisoner said as to the excavation in the cellar, "It is for rabbits"—I do not know anything about keeping rabbits—I never heard that Dutch rabbit hutches are sunk underground—it seemed to me strange to keep rabbits three feet underground—they live underground in their native state—I have not seen them kept in Holland—I found these cards stamped with the name of the Autonomie Club—I was concerned in the raid on the club—it was resorted to by a most dangerous section of people; people known to me and other officers, and dangerous from their inflammatory speeches and general demeanour—two or three different groups of Anarchists meet there—one of these groups does not deprecate and denounce the use of force; on the contrary, the whole of them advocate force—they take in these socialistic journals for the benefit of criticism—I have frequently seen this journal Freedom; I have not read this copy—the editor of it is a violent man himself; he is an Englishman—the Anarchische Communistche Bibliothek Krapotkine bears the imprint "Antwerp"—I don't say that that connects it with the Autonomie Club—on the occasion of the first visit to the prisoner's house I went to try and apprehend Francois, who was wanted on a warrant for murder within the jurisdiction of the French Republic—he was acquitted when he got to France—when I went to the prisoner's house then I said I and my friends were the sanitary inspectors—I did not find Francois then; I was a bit too late—I found he had been there—Flood was not with me then; McIntyre was—on a subsequent occasion Flood was with me—on the second visit I went to inquire about a well-known Anarchist—he has not yet been tried—I only visited the prisoner three times—I daresay the prisoner might think it highly probable that we might call again—I don't think he knew that anyone knew his address at 54, Park Walk—I am not here to express an opinion whether he would think it possible that we should call again—he said he saw the contents of the box when it came open—I never got possession of any of the prisoner's letters before he was arrested—I got a letter addressed to him on Francois—we only paid two real visits to the prisoner's house—I have met the prisoner in the street and just had a word with him; said "Good day," and that kind of thing; a matter of five or ten minutes' conversation—he simply spoke about general matters—he spoke to me about Francois, and said the papers had made a lot of fuss about Francois' moving about, and had we come to his place we could have got him easily—I don't know if that was a joke, as much as to say, "You are not very sharp after all"—I thought he said it meaningly—I knew it was true—it was a difficult thing to get Francois; he never came out till the evening, as has been shown—the third visit to the prisoner's house was the same as the second; it had nothing to do with Francois—it was in connection with another man who has not yet been caught—there were little weights with the scales and metal piping, and they are with the scales now—I think they were given to Dr. Dupre—the prisoner referred to his comrades—that is not a term usually employed by English workmen referring to others; nor so far as I know it is by foreign workmen—I have had a good deal to do with foreigners here, and except Anarchists I have never heard them use the word comrade—I have been much abroad—I have not mixed much with workmen abroad—I have not heard them use the word camarade—I am prepared most absolutely to say that the prisoner was not making fun of or chaffing me and the police for not finding Francois; he said it meaningly, to inform us that if we had gone to his house we should have got him there—I cannot see much fun in that—I had no special interest in capturing Francois—I have received as large rewards for capturing Englishmen as foreigners—the prisoner is a man who has worked, but I know him in connection with Anarchists—individually I know nothing against his character otherwise than as an alleged Anarchist—so far as I know he has worked pretty regularly up to twelve months ago—I saw Colan repairing something in his house—I never heard before that the prisoner previously to coming to London was secretary of the Amsterdam Cabinet Workman's Union and Sick Benefit Society.

By the JURY. I have known him four years—I became acquainted with him as an Anarchist, as he associated with Anarchists—he worked in Eden Street, before he went to Chelsea, as a cabinet-maker—he worked twelve or eighteen months ago at Emanuel's in Arlington Road, Camden Town, for eight or ten months or more—that was when he lived at Pitt Street with his children—I did not see a rabbit hutch in Park Walk—there was no lid for the hole—the bottom of the hole was of wood, and it was cased round with wood; the wood was there to make a top, but the top was not complete—there was a Dutch stove at Pitt Street, about two feet high, standing out six or seven inches from the wall, like an American stove—I did not examine whether it had a flue pipe through the fireplace; I never searched Pitt Street—I did not see a stove in Park Walk like that—a flue like that to go into the chimney can be taken out without much difficulty; it would come into short lengths, and would not require gunpowder to clean it.

Re-examined. Francois was arrested in October, 1892, and extradited about Christmas, 1892—the prisoner's observation made to me was not till November, 1893—no effort was made to search any of the premises occupied by the prisoner till 31st May—I found this bottle (Produced) in the cupboard in the upstairs top room at 54, Park Walk, with these other articles.
By MR. FARELLY. I do not think it would take long to clean the flue of the stove—I did not take much notice of it—I do not know that that particular kind of stove is very difficult to clean; that each little bit has to be taken to pieces and cleaned; I expressed an opinion about ordinary stoves—this bottle was not sealed when I got it; it was taken in the presence of the prisoner's wife, not of the prisoner—it was carried to Dr. Dupre just as it is—no search was made at Pitt Street—I do not think there was any stove at Park Walk; there might have been one in the kitchen, but I did not see it; I had very little to do with the search down-stairs—there was an ordinary kitchener downstairs, so far as I remember.

LOUIS KELTERBORN (Re-examined). There was a stove at Pitt Street previous to the prisoner moving in, and it was left there, and he had an American stove, which he purchased himself, placed on the hearth as foreigners generally do—he took it away when he left—he had an iron pipe fixed to carry the smoke into the chimney underneath the register of the ordinary grate—the stove was two feet or two feet three inches high—the pipe had a straight arm and then an elbow as the stove was higher than the register—the aperture for smoke was at the back of the stove—I do not understand how they cleaned the pipe out.
ALFRED HOLLAND (Re-examined). I never saw an American or Dutch stove at 54, Park Walk—as far as I know the prisoner never had one there.
MRS. WOOD (Re-examined). The prisoner used a small round stove at 30, Jubilee Place; they brought it with them—I believe they took it away with them when they moved—I did not see it go—it was not in the room afterwards—I believe they used it up to the time they left—they kept it on the dresser—it had two burners and burnt paraffin oil, I believe—they always used the fireplace for coal or coke—so far as I know no stove that required a flue was brought to my place.

JOHN SWEENEY (Inspector, Criminal Investigation Department). On. 31st May I was at 54, Park Walk, when the prisoner was brought there—the house was searched before he arrived—I found in the front area or basement this square wooden box—there was in it a small tin box containing three pieces of metal, several hooks used for hanging base coin on, called ladders—in the kitchen in the basement I found these two batteries, these four large bottles containing various fluids, chalk, plaster of Paris, sulphate of copper, and some white powder—upstairs Walsh found the portmanteau under the bed as he has described—the prisoner pointing to the coining implements and moulds, said, "They belong to a Frenchman who lived in Cleveland Street; I don't know the number or name"—on the way to the station the prisoner said, "You know the man well enough, Fritz"—referring to the things found in and on the cupboard in the top room the prisoner said, "All those things except the battery were left with me twelve months ago by a Russian Pole named Shapirer, who lived in the neighbourhood of Whitechapel; he was studying medicine"—the prisoner said the battery found upstairs in that room belonged to himself—the prisoner was taken to the Chelsea Police-station—I was going back past the house and saw Franz Ricken knocking at the door—prior to 31st May Melville arrested Meunier at Victoria Station on a charge of causing an explosion at the Cafe Verey—Meunier was extradited to France—Ricken was charged with attempting to procure the escape of Meunier, and was dealt with at Bow Street by Sir John Bridge—I was acquainted with the Autonomie Club—I did not take part in the raid—Ricken was a member of the club—I have looked at the names in the pocket-book which was found—I find the name F. Ricken there, and the names of persons in regard to whom I, as a police officer, have received certain information—I know the photograph of Rabe. I do not know Rabe himself—in April last I was making inquiries about a person alleged to be an Anarchist in the neighbourhood of Chelsea, and in the course of those inquiries I met the prisoner in the street—he said there was a young Frenchman who had recently come from France staying with him at 30, Jubilee Place—he invited us to the house to see him; we went—I saw in the kitchen a young Frenchman who could not speak English—I recognised him as Fritz—he said, through Brail, his name was Fritz—I knew him by the name of Fritz Lebras—Flood was with me—when Ricken was arrested in March the name of Colan was found on him, and in consequence of that the inquiries at Chelsea were made—all the articles produced to-day found in the house were handed to Dr. Dupre.

Cross-examined. I produce a bottle labelled "Poison"—as far as I know all the things were shown to Dr. Dupre—I did not know what the articles found were—I believe a lot of empty bottles were left behind—I don't remember whether they bore labels—I brought the bottles containing fluids, and left the empty ones—we have not got those that were left behind—the last witness produced some empty bottles—all the bottles and things found upstairs were brought—the other empty bottles left behind were found in the back kitchen downstairs—the bottles downstairs were with workmen's tools and other things, and we thought they had oils and so on in them, and we left them—none of the articles were locked up—they were quite open, in and on top of a cupboard in the room upstairs, which was not used—it is a six-roomed house—only one room had a bed in it—we knew Ricken as an Anarchist—I do not know to what group he belonged—he was charged with attempting to rescue Meunier from custody—I don't know what Francois was accused of, or anything about him—I have seen and read Freedom before—I believe the editor is an Englishman—the prisoner made no attempt at concealment when he invited us to Jubilee Place—the man there was not the man we wanted—we sealed up none of the articles we took from the prisoner's house—the prisoner is an industrious sort of man—I only know that he worked at Vitz's shop as a cabinet-maker—I saw unfinished articles of furniture at the house, and Colan was working there—the prisoner is a German, I believe—he was speaking French with a Frenchman in his room—I do not know French, but Flood speaks French, and the prisoner told me he was a Frenchman—I was not concerned in the search for Francois—the prisoner never spoke to me about the Francois affair—I saw the box in the area; it was in the same condition then as it is now—I can only speak to one search of the prisoner's house; that was at Jubilee Place—I cannot say that his house was not visited six times.

By the JURY. Steps have been taken to trace the people who are alleged to have given the prisoner these things—I have not been able to trace them.
By MR. FARRELLY. He did not give me the address of the young Pole or the Frenchman; he said "Whitechapel."
Re-examined. The bottles that were left downstairs were empty—there might have been a little oil in some of them, but as far as I remember they were empty—there was nothing in them to implicate the prisoner, and therefore I did not take them away—his wife was left in the house after I went away—what was left behind would be in her custody—I have only known the prisoner eighteen months.

WILLIAM DICKSON . I am chief clerk to the Inspector of Explosives at the Home Office, and, as such, I have control of the books containing a list of persons who have licenses for explosives—the prisoner does not hold any license for the manufacture or storage of explosives—I can find no such name as "Fritz Brail" registered—a person may have a license from a local authority, and he would or might be inspected by the local authority, or by the authorities at the head office—there is an Order in Council under the Explosive Acts which forbids the storage of fulminate of mercury in a private house—it is not at all allowed to be stored on any private premises, because of its dangerous character.
Cross-examined. For nitric acid, sulphuric acid, mercury, methylated spirits, electric batteries and wires, no license is required; not by themselves.

WILLIAM JOHN WEBSTER . I am Inspector of Counterfeit Coin to the Mint—the moulds in this portmanteau have not been used—they could not be used; there is no place for the get—the metal could not be poured in.

[This evidence is lengthy, technical and detailed and has therefore been considerably shortened here. It can be read in full at the links above]
I am a lecturer on chemistry, Fellow of the Royal Society, and Chemical Adviser to the Explosives Department of the Home Office—on the 1st of June I received from Inspector Sweeney a box containing a number of articles—this (Produced) is not the box, but these are the contents—I found a number of bottles, some solids, and a number of pieces of glass apparatus, electric batteries, and some wires, two Florence oil flasks, [...] this 23-ounce bottle contained 210 grains of fulminate of mercury; the bottle, when I saw it, was more or less coated with it—that led me to conclude that it had contained more, and that it had been emptied—fulminate of mercury is a very high explosive—in causing legitimate explosions it is never used by itself, it is too dangerous to handle—it is the chief material in starting so-called high explosives [...] Nos. 1 and 12 are two recipes for making an explosive which requires sulphuric acid to explode it; that is called here "Explosive Vaillant"—that would be a very powerful explosive—I have had shown to me a quantity of cartridges, some with bullets, and some without; they are loaded with gunpowder—blank cartridges have been used for causing explosions—they have been used in such a way as to start a detonator; scarcely in place of a detonator, but for starting one—I have knowledge of the book containing directions and recipes, from which it would be possible for a person following that to manufacture the explosives which are named in the book, including fulminate of mercury, very nearly [...]
Cross-examined by MR. FARELLY. Many of the substances submitted to me were innocent and capable of being used for lawful purposes [...]—I have put a mark against two, which could be used for an unlawful purpose—these were found all together in a big box. (INSPECTOR SWEENEY identified the articles in the box as those which he found upstairs)[...]—any battery might be used for causing an explosion, but I have had no experience of one like this—it was incomplete for causing explosion—there was no switch or communicator—it is disconnected [...]—there were no ingredients for dynamite [...]—Most's book would give sufficient information for preparing nitro-glycerine—we have experience that perfectly uneducated men have done it [...]—you might use the glass tubes found for innocent purposes—I do not think I said at the Police-court they could be used for making explosives—I must have misunderstood the question [...]—Florence flasks are very useful for making fulminate of mercury[...]—in one of them was ferro-cyanide of potassium—that is commonly used for making amorces—it would not be used for making any explosive on that list—methylated spirit is used by cabinet-makers, and in the spirit lamp—1 3/4; ounces of spirit were found, none was left—I thought at first it was something else, and that made me use it up—I thought, in favour of the prisoner, I ought to examine it and make sure it was not something else—I found an error in division had been made by my assistant of two per cent, as to its strength, and I at once informed your chemist—I gave the evidence at the Police-court, not my assistant; everything was done under my supervision—you cannot swear always to every division being right; it is very unfortunate, and I am very sorry about it—the present strength is exactly the strength for making fulminate of mercury—the error was small, and the figures are practically identical—the spirit I bought at the time I was at the Police-court was always 60 or 61 over proof, and when I found this out I got samples from different oil shops, and found it was stronger commercially than I thought it was; it has got stronger lately.  

[Blog adjourned here due to length - part 2 follows]

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