Friday, July 1, 2016

Trying Times: More Anarchists in 1894, Part 2

Witnesses for the Defence.

WILLIAM MORRIS . I live at 26, Upper Mall, Hammersmith—I knew Cantwell as a member of the Socialist League, of which I was a member—I never heard him oppose acts of outrage, but such questions did not arise at that time—I am the author of this verse upon the placard—I knew Cantwell pretty well, as I should have known the other members of the league for some time, and my impression of him is that he was a very good-natured man; I should have thought he would not have done any harm to anybody or anything—he was, perhaps, rather rash, or boyish is the word I should use about him. (The COURT ruled that MR. FARRELLY could not ask the witness questions as to principles Cantwell had expressed formerly, or as to the meaning of the verse upon the placard.)
Cross-examined. I have not seen much of him lately—it is something less than five years since I left the Socialist League, but I have seen Cantwell since.

EVELYN GEORGE STRIDE . I live at 33, Calderon Road, Leytonstone, and am clerk to a foreign exchange broker—I was present at the Tower Hill meeting on 29th June—I saw Quin there—there was a good deal of interruption of his speech—it seemed as if the interrupters were interrupting purposely, as if they came for that purpose—I am not acquainted with the prisoners—I never saw them before the meeting—I come to give evidence because I saw a letter in the Weekly Times and Echo asking anybody who was present on 29th June to communicate with Mr. Bamford, the solicitor—I heard part of Quin's speech—I was there about five or seven minutes before the meeting broke up—I did not hear him say anything about bombs, or "Damn the Queen," or incite to murder anybody—I did not see him distribute pamphlets. 

Cross-examined. I arrived at the meeting about five or ten minutes before it closed—Quin was then speaking—he held in front of him the large yellow bill—I could read the largest letters—I do not approve of it—I did not hear the beginning of his speech—there was a good deal of interruption at the close—there seemed persistent cries from some of the crowd—I heard, "Shut up"—I did not hear, "Shoot them!" or "Lynch them!"—I saw Quin all at once disappear very quickly from the parapet—I don't know how it was; he might have been jostled off—I heard no reference to M. Carnot or France, or the things that had been done there, or that should be done there.

JOSEPH LEWIS . I live at 41, Buxton Street, Mile End New Town—I am a furrier, but having no employment in my trade my recent occupation is selling in the street—I was present at the Tower Hill meeting on 29th June, selling pictures and views in connection with the Tower Bridge—my attention was drawn by the crowd of people, and I went to sell my pictures—I was present during the whole of Cantwell's speech—I did not hear him use any violent language, or incite to murder, or use the word "bombs"—I stood ten or fifteen yards from the platform, on the fringe of the crowd—I could hear quite plainly, with the exception of some parts which I lost—I could hear as well as the ordinary crowd, I consider—I did not hear him say, "The deeds that have been done are not half bad enough to an extent," or "Perhaps there will be some more deeds worse," or "Make war against the blood-suckers"—I heard him say the workers were to organise against the capitalist—I did not hear him say, "Plenty in England to be served the same," or "There is a necessity these people should be removed," or "I will both fight and die: I shall be heard of tomorrow," or "The assassination of Carnot is fully justified," or "The Royal vermin should be served like other vermin" I heard him say, as far as I could understand, that the Royal Family should not open the bridge, but the workmen who built it—I did not hear the word "bombs" used—I did not hear, "They have done a good deed in assassinating Carnot," or "There will be some more of that," or "We have made ourselves felt in France, and will make ourselves felt here"—there was great uproar during the proceedings—I did not hear, "There are plenty Milling to die. I will lead them if they will follow"—I did not hear Quin inciting to murder—I did not hear, "We were heard of in France, and we will be heard of again and again," or "Out of a little harm great good will come"—I did not hear Quin say, "I hate the Royal Family"; he said he disliked the Royal Family—I did not hear him say, "D—the Queen"—I should recollect it most probably if I had heard it—I saw no pamphlets distributed, I am certain of that, because I should be the first man to hold out my hand for a pamphlet—I did not see any if they were distributed publicly.

Cross-examined. I have sold views and pictures daily for eight weeks—the last time I worked as a furrier was at Tibbett's, a leather merchant, about three months ago—I am not a speaker at these meetings; my views are against Anarchists—I am a Socialist—I speak at Socialist meetings when invited; I take no prominent part—possibly I spoke at an unemployed meeting in November last year upon the plea that I was unemployed, which I was—I have attended these meetings if I have been unemployed—I don't know that that has been often, with the exception of last winter, when I was out of employment—I attended the unemployed meetings in Hyde Park on one or two occasions—I attended the Tower Hill meetings last year—I may have spoken on Tower Hill just after Christmas, previous to my last employment—possibly I spoke there on 13th March, 1894—the burden of my speech was to endeavour to get the workers to organise to protect their own interests—I might have spoken in condemnation of the capitalist class; that was the subject-matter of my speech, for political action—I think I was unemployed in March—my principal occupation for the last year has not been attending meetings of the unemployed in Hyde Park and on Tower Hill; I may have been in work some days and not others—I was on the fringe of the crowd on this occasion; it grew large as it went on—I don't think there were three hundred or four hundred people—there was great confusion, but not among most of the people—I heard cries of "Lynch them" and "Lynch him," but the cries seemed to come from an individual throat—there was a surging mass of people moving towards the parapet, and then I believe Cantwell got down after some time—I cannot say whether I saw Quin get down—I believe he was interrupted in his speech, and that was the reason he got down—the crowd said some very nasty things—one of the crowd used the word "bombs" as a question put to the prisoners, "Did they have a bomb in their pocket?"—I have heard abuse of the Royal Family on several occasions—I did not hear such abuse on this occasion; I am quite sure—I heard, "I dislike the Royal Family"; I do not look on that as abuse—I heard Carnot's name mentioned by one of the crowd, but no reference to him from the speakers—one of the crowd called out, "What about the murder of Carnot?"—I heard no answer to that; the noise was very great—I heard no reference to France—I heard words to the effect that the Tower Bridge was to be opened to-morrow by Royalty, but the workers were the right people to open it, because they built it. and the speaking was much in the same strain about the bridge—the speaker went on about the bridge being built by the workers, and they did not have the benefit of it and the opening of it; and then it seemed to turn a rowdy meeting, and what else was said was partly lost by the noise—all I heard clearly with reference to the bridge was that it should be opened by the workers instead of Royalty—Cantwell may have spoken from twenty minutes to half an hour—I don't say I have given all he said; that was all I heard.

Re-examined. I am opposed to Anarchist ideas; I am subpoenaed here—there was a good deal of interruption at the meeting—my idea was there were three or four people there organised for the purpose of upsetting the meeting—I did not go for the sole purpose of attending the meeting—I had been selling there from ten in the morning—I was ten or fifteen yards from the prisoners, and there was room for four hundred or five hundred people to stand between me and them, because the place is very wide—I never spoke at a meeting till six or seven months ago—I had seen some of the organised interrupters at other unemployed meetings.

[Re-examined] By the COURT. I stayed to the end of the meeting—it ended in confusion—the whole of the meeting seemed to run away towards where the prisoners went—they followed the prisoners as quick as possible, and out of curiosity, I expect, to see what would happen to the prisoners—I did not follow them—I did not think the crowd would lynch them; they followed them just the same as any opposition at an ordinary meeting.

SAMUEL JOHN PARKHOUSE . I live at 32, Branscombe Road, Acre Lane, Brixton, and am a hackney carriage driver—I have been a police constable in the P and D Divisions—on 29th June I was on Tower Hill with my cab, on the rank—I heard the prisoners speaking from the parapet—I did not hear them incite to murder, or use the word "bomb"—I had never seen them before—I did not hear them say, "The deeds that have been done are not half bad enough to an extent; we must make war against the blood-suckers; plenty will be served the same in England; it will be necessary to remove the heads of States"—I heard something about the working classes, that they would not put up with the capitalists—I did not hear, "They have done a good thing in assassinating Carnot"—I heard them say, "We shall be heard of again"—I thought they meant the next day—I saw some pamphlets in the crowd—I did not see either of the prisoners distributing them—I did not hear Quin say, in reference to the assassination of Carnot, "Out of a little harm great good will come," nor about using bombs—I did not hear him say, "I hate the Royal Family"—he said, "There is quite as good in the meeting to go and open the Tower Bridge to-morrow as the Royal Family"—I did not hear him say," D—the Queen."

Cross-examined. There was some uproar during Quin's speech among the crowd—I could hear pretty plainly—I did not hear Quin's speech—I was on my cab, twenty-five yards away—I could hear pretty well what he said—I have said what I did hear—there were 300 or 400 people, I should think—two or three people seemed to annoy the rest; they kept interrupting the speakers—Cantwell got down, because the crowd swayed towards him—there were two or three agitators in the crowd who were annoyed at him delivering his speech—I don't know the agitators' names—they were agitating against the prisoners—I could not say they were annoying the rest of the people—I believe Quin was pulled off the wall by the agitators—I did not see the prisoners run for their lives; they ran away, and the crowd followed up—they could not run very fast, with such a crowd round them—I could not say they ran away; the whole crowd went after them, because, I suppose, the agitators going after them, the crowd followed, as they usually do—I heard Cantwell's speech fairly well, considering the noise—I heard him say, "The working classes will not be depressed by the capitalists," and "We shall be heard of again"—after that he made some remarks about the Tower Bridge opening to-morrow; that was the next thing—he had said it before, but he brought it forward again—I am positive I did not hear the word "bomb" used by anybody—somebody called out "bomb," but it was not the prisoners—I did not hear any reference to Monsieur Carnot by anyone—Cantwell made some reference to France, saying "The Government of France has been oppressive, and other Governments will have to be come at in some way; we shall have to make them come to the working classes"—I did not hear him say, "M. Carnot, the President of the Republic, has been assassinated, and there will have to be something of the same kind here, in order to get the working classes' rights"—I left the police in 1878, because I lost a sister-in-law who was on board the Princess Alice, and I went to the Inspector and asked him to let me off that night, to make arrangements, and he would not allow me off, and so I took leave, and I was compelled to resign.
Re-examined. When the crowd moved after the prisoners the agitators were pushing about among themselves.
"Gothic style drawbridge opened on 30th June 1894."
Scene of protests past and recent, not quite as it was then: 
 surroundings may have changed but the spirit of revolt survives.

JOHN ROCHE . I am a seaman—I was present at the meeting on Tower Hill the day before the opening of the bridge—I was selling medals of the Tower Bridge and photographs of the Prince of Wales—I was present during the whole of the prisoners' speeches; they stood on the parapet of the Tip-Top Tea Company's warehouse—I should say Cantwell spoke about half-past one or two, as near as I could guess—I did not hear either of them incite to murder, nor use the word "bomb"—I never saw them before till that day—Cantwell did not say, "The deeds that have been done are not half bad enough"—I did not hear him use the French President's name at all—he did not say, "We intend to make war"—all he said was "The Royal Family is coming down here to open the bridge to-morrow, and the public and the working men have more right to be on the Tower Bridge and open the bridge than the Royal Family, because the Prince of Wales is only living on the sweat of the brow of the working men"—I did not hear him say, referring to the assassination of Carnot, "There are plenty in England to be served the same," nor "It is a necessity that these people should be removed"—I was there throughout the whole proceedings—I did not hear him say, "I will both fight and die," nor "The Royal vermin should be served like other vermin"—I did not hear him say anything about Royal vermin—he did not say, "They are only fit for bombs"—I heard someone in the crowd say, when Cantwell was speaking, "If old Hawkins had hold of you he would make warm work of you, and you ought to be before him"—someone in the crowd not far from me shouted "Another Le Caron," referring to the man who said that Cantwell ought to be before old Hawkins—I did not hear Cantwell say, "They have done a good thing in assassinating Carnot; there are plenty willing to die; I will lead them if they will follow"—I went to Lockhart's coffee-rooms, after it was all over, and I noted down Quin's speech; not all of it; only what I could catch—I did not hear Quin say, "We were heard of in France, and will be heard of to-morrow and again and again," nor "Out of a little harm great good will be gained," nor "If I did use bombs, it would be for the benefit of the working men"—he said he did not like the Royal Family; he did not say he hated them—I did not hear him say, "D—the Queen"—if he had there might have been a rush on him.

Cross-examined. There was a rush upon him—if he had excited the public to murder he would not have been living, and in the dock now—the prisoners both ran away, and so would you if they had tried to kill you—the crowd ran after them—I went about my business—I went to Lockhart's for my tea a little after four, and then made a note of the speeches—at any public meeting I go to I take a bit of a note; it is a hobby of mine—I have been at a few meetings, not on Tower Hill—I was at the back of the crowd; there might have been more than 400 people—there was more shouting than disturbance—I cannot say why the crowd said the prisoners ought to be taken before Mr. Justice Hawkins.

DANIEL HANDS . I am a basket manufacturer, of 50, St. Paul's Road, Camden Town—this is Cantwell's knife—he has had it for eight years or more, using it for his work and other purposes—he was a basket maker—I have been in business about eleven years—Cantwell was extremely steady, hard working, and industrious—he worked for me for about four years—he made no concealment about this knife—I became acquainted with him when he was working in America—it is very usual to carry a revolver there—I am not an Anarchist, and have no sympathy with them—I belong to the Church of England—I know Cantwell perfectly well—he used to live and work in the same house with me in America and here.

Cross-examined. I know he has been connected with the Commonweal newspaper—I believe he has lived at 24, Sidmouth Mews—I know he spends a good deal of his time on the Commonweal, but I can't say what he does in connection with it—he has been connected with Socialists and Anarchists lately.
Re-examined. He has occasionally worked at his trade as well; I have had him to assist me when I have been busy—five or six weeks ago was the last occasion when he assisted me, I should say—I believe he used this knife then.

JOHN WILLIAMS . I live at 20, Collard Road, Walthamstow—I am a painter, in work—I was present at the unemployed meetings last winter on Tower Hill—I presided at the unemployed meeting on 16th January—Quin spoke; he requested my permission to do so—I was instructed by the executive to tell speakers that they were to keep to the question of the unemployed, and that no violent language was to be used—if violent language had been used I should have stopped the speaker, and denounced him—I have stopped speakers—I emphatically deny that the language, as given by Walsh, was used—when a speaker is up who does not belong to the Social Democratic Association, I never move from the parapet until he has finished, acting under the instructions of my committee—Quin might have told the meeting to adopt the principles of Christian Anarchism, as he was not a Socialist.
Cross-examined. I do not allow violent speaking as a rule, nor as an exception; I apply that rule to myself—I do not make strong speeches—I am prepared to stand by the police reports of all the speeches I have made—I believe I made a speech on 11th January, 1894, to the unemployed on Tower Hill, when Partridge and Hunter Watts were there—I did not say that I had said enough from time to time to put me under the care of the authorities; but that "I did not care one damn for Mr. Asquith or his satellites, and that I was fully prepared to run any risk"—Mr. Asquith has declared in the House of Commons that at all times I used such mild language that they could not get me within the power of the law—I said at that meeting that I was prepared to go to almost any length to compel the authorities to turn their attention to the unemployed question; that the only course open to the unemployed was to do something to bring them under notice, parade the streets, and they might depend upon it that, if one or two of them had to suffer, the majority would soon gain their object—I did not say I would do something to terrorise the capitalists—I don't think I asked my audience if they were prepared to strike terror into the hearts of the capitalists; I won't be too sure—I put it to them if any of them could be worse off if they were in prison, and they answered, "No"—I may have said, "Will you follow me one day next month?" and I daresay they said, "Yes"—I did not say, "We will go into Trafalgar Square, watch the divisions from which the police are drawn, and then go into the unprotected quarters and take those things you want;" nothing to that effect—I don't remember saying, "I will get up a scrimmage to create a diversion, and after the first scrimmage something will be done"—I won't swear I did not say it—I spoke at a meeting on 5th February this year—I did not tell the audience that they must remember they had chemicals on their side—I said, "The police have commenced their brutality; they must remember that science is not all on one side; science is also on the side of other men"—I did not say that they could make a small package for twopence, which, if carelessly laid down, would dispose of a few big constables, nor that a friend of mine had once said to me, "Send them to heaven by the chemical parcel post"—I said, "A friend of mine, in speaking of Joseph Chamberlain and other men, in addressing an unemployed audience, said that before these men would listen to opinions of those who were workless, they would have to be sent to heaven by chemical parcel post"—he was referring to those in power, I presume—I was speaking of John Burns, and I gave a quotation—I had been talking to the unemployed on the subject of how hard it was to get the authorities to listen to the claims of the unemployed, and then I said what my friend had told me—I did not say that my audience should not be armed with sticks, but with chemicals, which were much better—I did not ask them to go armed in future—I said that if the police were prepared to use violence on all occasions in the processions of the unemployed, the unemployed were, in my judgment, justified in using force—I said that they should not allow themselves to be kicked and stamped upon, as they were on Saturday, and they would be justified in using force to prevent it—I do not think I spoke at the meeting on 30th January—I abide by my view that something ought to be done by the unemployed, and that nothing would be done until the authorities are compelled to listen to their claims.
Re-examined. At the time John Burns said what I have given he was an unemployed leader.

GEORGE BANTING . I am a commercial traveller, of 125, Randolph Street—on June 29th, the day before the opening of the Tower Bridge, I heard Cantwell speak—he did not incite to murder anybody—I went to Tower Hill on business, and was there from one to 2.10 or 2.15—I do not know either of the prisoners—I saw a notice in the Echo from Mr. Bamford, saying that if anybody happened to be there, to come forward and state what they heard, and my wife said it was my duty to go—I stood in front of the speakers during the meeting, about the fourth row from the parapet—I heard all Cantwell's speech—I did not hear him say, "The deeds that have been done are not half bad enough in extent" referring to the assassination of M. Carnot, or "We must make war against the blood-suckers, "or" Plenty will be served the same in England," or "It will be necessary to remove the heads of States," or "Bombs shall be used," or "They have done a good thing assassinating Carnot"—I heard, "What about Carnot?" shouted out as an interruption to his address—I have it on my memory because I was anxious to know how anybody could justify the murder of Carnot—he said, "There are fanatics in every cause, and I am not here to defend them"—I have no recollection of hearing him say, "We shall be heard again and again"—I did not hear him say, "There are plenty willing to die, and I will lead them if they will follow"—I did not see either of the prisoners distributing pamphlets—I heard the whole of Quin's speech; he was not so long speaking as Cantwell—the first words he said were, "I stand here as a Christian Anarchist," and he went on to speak of the orphans of those who lost their lives in building the bridge which was going to be opened the following day, and quoted a few lines from Edward Carpenter and Shelley, and some Biblical quotations in reference to Christ—he said he was a Christian Anarchist, and that Christ said, "Suffer little children to come unto me," and he was only speaking on behalf of the helpless orphans and widows—I did not hear him say, "Further than France we shall be heard of again"—I never heard any justification from either of them of the assassination of Carnot—I did not hear the word "bomb," or "I hate the Royal Family"—he did not, at the end of his speech, say, "D—the Queen."

Cross-examined by MR. MATHEWS. I was in a shop on Tower Hill at one o'clock; I reckon I was there about 1.30 or 1.35—the meeting seemed to increase, because I took the outside ring at first, and when there was an interruption I looked round and saw people at the back of me—the interruption came from a quarter of the crowd concentrated in a particular corner; the interruptions were hostile to the speakers, and the demonstrations in their favour—the first interruption was "How about Carnot?" shouted very loud—Cantwell, who was speaking, replied, "There are fanatics in every cause, and I am not here to speak for such"—he went on speaking and dwelling on the fact that men had lost their lives, and said he could not imagine a more horrible bondage; even a hero lost his life in obtaining bread for his children—I cannot say that I heard much hostile demonstration, and there would have been none if it had not been for the interruptions—I think the majority of the men there wanted to hear what was to he said—the speakers did not refer to bombs except to ask if they could find the word in any literature which came from them, and no answer came—I have not read the pamphlet, of which he had some dozen copies on him—Cantwell was the first speaker; he got down from the wall, and then Quin got up—there were a lot hanging on the wall, and I should not be surprised if he was jostled down—the crowd did hot move towards the parapet with a view of tearing him off the wall—I did not see them make for him—I do not remember hearing the words, "The Government of France has been oppressive, and our Government will have to be seen to the same way to come to the working classes"—I cannot swear it was not said; I cannot remember everything; I have got my living to get—I heard the whole of Quin's speech—I heard him say with regard to France that he quite agreed with his comrade with reference to that dastardly dead in France; as a Christian he felt bound to do so—he said that he entirely endorsed all that had been said by Cantwell—I swear he did not say, "We have been heard of in France, and we will be heard of here to-morrow, again and again"—I listened very intently, and I assure you I could not hear a word to call forth anger from anyone, and I was very much surprised at the crowd—it was only a small minority of the crowd who were angry with Cantwell—Quin did not speak so long as Cantwell—I did not see Cantwell pulled off the wall—I have very convenient eyes; they have always been very convenient to me, and I am very proud of them—I did not see Cantwell run away or see the crowd follow; they stood on the parapet and behind the parapet as well, and it was impossible to see who was behind the wall—I was in front—I did not see either of the prisoners run away and the crowd follow them; I went straight away about my work—someone rushed at a speaker last night, but he was drunk—I do not suggest these persons were drunk—when they get a manly, straight-forward answer, I say it is a manly duty to be silent—I sympathise with the speakers—I did not hear Justice Hawkins' name mentioned—I did not hear the interruption.

Re-examined. I heard the whole of Cantwell's speech—I should say five or six people interrupted, speaking roughly from memory—they were all concentrated in one corner, in front on the left—Quin described himself, and spoke of Him who said "Suffer little children to come unto me," and went on to describe what He said; I remember it because it sounded so beautiful—I heard the whole of what was said on the platform; I was anxious to know what was coming from persons who called themselves Anarchists, and therefore I was very intent—nobody rushed from the front—of course I plead ignorance of what occurred after the meeting was over; I had my business to attend to—I was in the fourth row from the speakers, directly in front of them.

HENRY SUTCIJFFE . I am a packer, of Clyde Road, Tottenham—I have seen Quin; once he posed as a Christian Anarchist, and explained what that meant—I am not an Anarchist; I am a Radical—he did not advocate the use of force on that occasion; he distinctly said he did not believe in force—that was one Sunday evening in the winter, when he was lecturing at the gas-works; I cannot say the exact date.

JAMES CURTIS (Affirmed). I am a carpenter, but at present I am keeping a coffee-house at 14, Monville Road—I have been acquainted with Cantwell since the end of 1887—he is a very harmless, inoffensive man—I have had conversation with him many times, and have heard him speak in Hyde Park and Farringdon Road and the club-house at Morton—he is a basket maker—I am not an Anarchist, I oppose it on principle; it is very good as an ideal—I am a member of the Social Democratic Federation.
Cross-examined by MR. MATHEWS. There is a party of the Socialistic League led by Mr. Morris, and there is what you call the Commonweal group.

HERMAN DITCHER (Affirmed). I live at 81, Russell Road, Wimbledon—I am a Social Democrat, but in no way an Anarchist—I have known Cantwell six or seven years, and have heard him oppose the war of violence and outrage.

BRUCE WALLACE . I am a minister of the Congregational Union—I became acquainted with Quin by meeting him in London Fields about a year ago, when he was attending some matter in connection with the Ministers' Union, and afterwards at some of the conferences held on Sunday afternoons in my own church—his general character is good as far as I know—he describes himself as a Christian Anarchist Communist.

JOHN COLEMAN KENWORTHY (Affirmed). I live at 6, St. Andrew's Road, Plaistow—I met Quin at an open-air meeting at London Fields last year about September—I was interested in him in consequence of a letter of his which appeared in the Daily Chronicle in reference to a book of mine which had been recently reviewed—I know him as a man who professes Christianity, and takes an interest in social movements—I am an author and journalist.

GUILTY .— Six Months' Hard Labour each.

Link above will provide the text without the added colour and other minor changes/corrections.


And still trying to sort those pesky protestors
Could it have been some kind of collective/folk memory handed down in the Met that led them to take such bizarrely inappropriate action against anti-royalist demonstrators at the same site 108 years later...? (They didn't win that time.)

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